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Allergic Rhinitis

What is the mechanism of an allergic reaction?

Histamine is a substance produced by the body as part of its defence mechanisms. It is stored in cells called mast cells, in almost all tissues of the body. When the body reacts to a foreign substance (known as an allergen, e.g. flower pollen), the mast cells stimulated by the allergen release their stores of histamine.

The released histamine then binds to its receptors (H1 receptors), causing a chain reaction that results in allergic symptoms. It causes an increase in blood flow to the area of the allergy, and the release of other chemicals that add to the allergic response. This results in the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

In allergic rhinitis, histamine causes inflammation of the nose and eyes and results in itchy, watery eyes, a runny nose, sneezing and nasal congestion.

Antihistamines works by blocking histamine H1 receptors but it does not prevent the actual release of histamine from mast cells, but prevents it binding to its receptors. This in turn prevents the release of other allergy chemicals and reduces the blood supply to the area, providing relief from the typical symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

Antihistamines can also be used to relieve the symptoms of an allergic skin rash called urticaria. This is an itchy rash with hives, also known as nettle rash. Blocking the actions of histamine relieves the itching and reduces the rash associated with this condition.
 


Pollen allergy:

Birch pollen, one of the most common causes of hay fever in Britain. Birch trees release their pollen between March and May, and hay fever sufferers are likely to experience the worst symptoms during April:

www.telegraph.co.uk


Pollen Calendar

No blossoming

Pre-blossoming

Middle blossoming

Main blossoming

TypeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Acacia, blackNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Alder, commonPrePreMidMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Alfalfa, lucerneNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Amaranth, coarse-hairedNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidMidMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Ash, commonNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
BarleyNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Beech, commonNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Bermuda grassNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Birch, weepingNo blossomingNo blossomingPreMainMainMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Blue grass, KentuckyNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMainMainPrePrePreNo blossomingNo blossoming
Chestnut, sweetNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Cob, hazelPreMidMainMainMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMid
CocksfootNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainMidPreNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Common bentNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Couch grassNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Creeping bentNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Cypress, ItalianNo blossomingMainMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Daisy, moonNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainMainMainMidNo blossomingNo blossoming
DandelionNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Dock, curly, sorrel, garden, sheep’sNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainMidPreNo blossomingNo blossoming
Elder, commonNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Elm, ScotchNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
False oat grassNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMidPrePreNo blossomingNo blossoming
Geranium, beddingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainMainMainNo blossomingNo blossoming
Golden wattle, SydneyNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Goose-footNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingPreMidMainMainMidNo blossomingNo blossoming
Hornbeam, commonNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingPreMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
HyacinthNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Johnson grass (Sudan grass)No blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Lent lilyNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Lilac, commonNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainPreNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Meadow fescueNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingPrePreMainMainMainPreNo blossomingNo blossoming
Meadow foxtailNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMainMainMainMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Nettle, stingingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainPrePreNo blossomingNo blossoming
Oak, EnglishNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainPreNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Oats, commonNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMainMainMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
OliveNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
OrachNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidMidMidMidNo blossomingNo blossoming
ParietariaNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidMidMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Pellitory of the wallNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidMidMidMidMidNo blossomingNo blossoming
Pine, black, Scots and Eastern whiteNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingPreMidMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Plane, orientalNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Plantain, EnglishNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainMainMidPreNo blossomingNo blossoming
Poplar, whiteNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
PrimroseNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Privet, commonNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingPreMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
PussywillowNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Rape, oilseedNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMainMainPreNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Red FescueNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Rose, JapaneseNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Rye-grassNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingPreMainMainMainMainPreNo blossomingNo blossoming
Ryegrass, perennialNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMainMainPreNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
SabineNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Spruce, commonNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Sweet mock orangeNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMainMidMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
TimothyNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingPrePreMainMainMainMidNo blossomingNo blossoming
Vernal grass, scentedNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMainMainMainPrePreNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Wheat, commonNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Wild ryeNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
Yorkshire fogNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossomingMidMidMainMainMainNo blossomingNo blossomingNo blossoming
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